Ideologies of the XIX century

Nationalism:
The sentiment or feeling that exalts the language, history, culture and geography of a determined people (nation).

Cartism:
A popular movement in Great Britain from 1838 until 1848 in which the people sought social and elector reforms.

It is the movement originated from the People’s Letters, which contained the demands:
-Male suffrage for all men 21 years old and older.

-secret ballots

-annual parliamentary electronf

-the abolition of the requirement of being a land owner to become a member of Parliament.

-established salaries for member of parliament

-equal electoral districts (well distributed)

Ludism: 

-Movement in Great Britain that began shortly after  the industrial revolution.

-The groups were formed by English artisans during 1811 and 1812, which clandestinely destroy the machinery of the new textile industries.

-Promoters believed that industry was destroying their traditional way of life.

-The name of the movement is credited to its founder Ned Lud.

Liberalism and capitalism

The means of production-land and capital are considered private property. The interaction between buyres and sellers (or produces) naturally creates the market. The owners of the land and capital as well as the workers are free and seen to maximize their well- being.The consumers are free to spend their income as they please.
The producers are obligated, according to the competition in the market to utilize their resources in such a maner that they are able to satisfy the demands of the consumers.

The control of the private sector by the public sector is limited.

Utopian Socialism (ideal but unachievable)
Proposed a new social and economic organization: more humane and equal. All mankind should posses goods communally.
The idea was to form ideal societies in which there are no exploiters nor people who are exploited.

Scientific Socialism
Marxism supports the idea that capitalism is the result of a historical process characterized by the continuous conflict between opposing social classes.

Christian Socialism

Is was a movement created by Religious institutions (catholic & protestant) which goal was to defend the right of the working class. It pointed out the dehumanizing and materialistic practices of the business owners.

Anarchism

Anarchism rejected all types of authority, they believed that the most significant achievement of humanity is individual freedom in order to express oneself and act without being restricted by any form of power of authority, they fight against all religions and organized sects due to the restrictions, they place on the autonomy of all mankind.

 

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